Arhivele lunare: August 2011

Introducere în muzica contemporană

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Prezentare la Pecha Kucha Bucureşti, cărora le mulţumim, cu această ocazie, pentru videomontaj şi pentru invitaţie!

Despre:

Revista No14 Plus Minus

Mozart, Wagner

Karlheinz Stockhausen

Xenakis

Octavian Nemescu

Diana Rotaru şi SeduCânt

Irinel Anghel

Dynamic Meditation

Percuţii

Dumitru D. Botez

Ion Vidu

Valorile pe care le promovăm

Numărul 35, 10 august 2011

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Sumar

Summer Music: Ce muzică ascultăm vara?

Veronica Anghelescu: IAH Conference and Organ Music Festival in Timisoara

Un document valoros, descoperit din întâmplare

Florin Răducanu: Jazz-ul ca simbioză muzicală (III)

Mirela Zafiri: In Memoriam Gabi Oană

Ioan Marius Popa: Pagini din viaţa şi activitatea compozitorului Ioan Popa

George Petrovai: Mizerabilismul omului modern

Adalbert Gyuris: Interviu cu Ricky Dandel

Octavian Lupu: Vrei să publicăm împreună?

Vasile Menzel: Mihail Sebastian şi muzica; un joc de-a vacanţa

Dragoş Alexandru: De la muzica simfonică la muzica de film (VIII)

Paul Leu: Prima colecţie de cântece sociale pentru studenţii români

Sorin Lerescu: Fotoreportaj – Concert de muzică românească la Sofia

Colţul literar

Noi apariţii editoriale  

Irinel Anghel: Fly Me To The Moon 

The European Project of „The New Band” 

World-CEF announces 3 cultural projects 

 

Imaginea numărului: Frescă a Bisericii din Densuş, secolul al XIV-lea

Foto: Veronica Anghelescu

 

Summer Music: Ce muzică ascultăm vara?

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Anchetă No14PlusMinus

Suntem in luna august, luna mai linistita, in care ne adunam energiile, ne relaxam, ascultam muzica pe care „am pus-o deoparte” pentru cand vom avea timp.

Ce muzica ascultam in vacanta? Ce am putea sa recomandam si celor din jur, pentru starni interesul pentru muzica clasica si contemporana (si nu numai)?

 

Adrian Borza

Recomandarea mea, bazata pe numarul mare de melomani (experimentati sau nu in muzica moderna) care au calificat piesa drept muzica de meditatie, de relaxare, este aici:

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Adrian Pop

Ascultam Schumann „Waldszene” pentru ca este de sezon, sensibila si cu totul bio.

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Bogdan Vodă

Gesualdo, Bach, Brahms, Mahler, Stravinski, Ligeti, Kagel, Olah, Stroe plus ce da radioul (Romania Muzical) si orice iti vine in minte la un moment dat.

Despre recomandari in scop educativ, discutia ar fi foarte lunga si complexa, dar primul lucru de spus este: orice epoca, orice gen, dar lucrari de incontestabila valoare!…

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Călin Gibescu

Anton Bruckner – Simfoniile a 7-a, a 8-a si a 9-a (Celibidache-Munchen)

Gustav Mahler – Simfoniile a 4-a, a 5-a si a 9-a (Bernstein-Viena)

D.Shostakovich – Simfoniile a 5-a, a 8-a,a 10-a si a 15-a (Mravinsky-Leningrad)

– Concertul nr.1 pentru vioara si orchestra (David Oistrakh)

– Cvartete (Borodin Quartet)

W.A.Mozart – Concertul nr.23 pentru pian si orchestra (Horowitz)

Ceaikovsky – Simfoniile a 5-a (Celibidache-Munchen) si a 6-a (Gergiev-Kirov)

Schubert – Cvartetul nr.14 „Fata si moartea” (Alban Berg Quartet)

Beethoven – Ultimele cvartete (Alban Berg Quartet)

– Sonatele pentru pian (Emil Gilels)

Brahms – Recviemul german (Celibidache-Munchen)

Prokofiev – „Romeo si Julieta”

Bach – Clavecinul bine temperat (Richter)

– Variatiunile Goldberg (Glenn Gould)

– Sonate si Partite pentru vioara (Henryk Szeryng)

Chopin – Nocturne (Rubinstein)

Rachmaninov – Vecernii (Estonian Phillarmonic Choir)

Debussy – Preludes (Michelangeli)

Barber – Adagio pentru corzi (Celibidache-Munchen)

Bartok – Cvartete (Emerson String Quartet)

Arvo Part – Agnus Dei, Credo, Passio, Lamentate, De Profundis, Spiegel im spiegel,

Stabat Mater, Cantus in Memory of Benjamin Britten

Messiaen – Vingt regards sur l’enfant Jésus
– Quatuor pour la fin du temps

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Cătălin Creţu

Va recomand sa ascultati Youssef Dhafer. E suficient pentru o vara.

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Cătălin Taru

Eu apreciez muzica populară românească.

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Cornel Ţăranu

Bach / Webern – Fuga ricercata

Olivier Messiaen – L’Ascsension

George Enescu – Simfonia de camera

Ştefan Niculescu – Cantos si Recviem

Anatol Vieru Simfonia a V-a

Varese – complet

Ives – Intrebarea fara raspuns

Olah – Perspective; Invocatii

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Dana Deac

1. HAVASI, indeosebi The Storm (Symphonic Concert Show version)

2. Taxi

3. Nicu Alifantis, Adrian Sarmasan si Tudor Gheorghe

4. Yanni

5. Vanghelis

6.  Adam Hurst

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Daniela Georgeta Demenenco

Mica serenada-Mozart, Simfonia a VI-a-Pastorala-Bethoven, Imperialul-concert pentru pian si orchestra-Bethoven, Carmina Burana -Carl Orff, Pinii din Roma -Respighi, Sarbatoarea primaverii-Stravinski, Rapsodia romana-Enescu…

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Diana Răileanu

Toate cintecele lui: Dean Martin !! Frank Sinatra, Edmundo Ros, Eartha Kitt, Diana Krall, Eliane Elias, Norah Jones.

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Diana Rotaru

Muzici care sunt bucurie pura:

si, bineinteles…

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Eginald Schlattner

Chopin, Norbert von Hannenheim!

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Gabriel Mălăncioiu

Gubaidulina – Musical Toys

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George Anca

Aveam de gând să merg pe recomandările copiilor noştri, pe muzica lor, când Ben Todică îmi trimite panseuri adolescente printre care: „La usa inimii cuiva nu trebuie nici sa ciocanesti, nici sa navalesti, nici sa te rogi, ci trebuie doar sa canti.” – Florentina Stoian, 11 ani; „Numai cel ce aude cu sufletul, se poate incanta de concertul dat de greier si de izvor. ” -Nicoleta Stefan, 14 ani; „Muzica te curata de urat, dar numai daca o folosesti ca sapunul, adica toata viata, nu asa, din cand in cand.” – Irina Raducanu

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Ioan Dobrinescu

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Ioana Stuparu

Imi place muzica populara originala, fiindca s-a pus mult suflet in creatia ei, imi place sa ascult cantecele interpretate de Maria Lataretu, creatiile ei in care se gaseste toata frumusetea muzicii lautaresti, imi place muzica lenta, melodioasa, sa ascult in surdina, imi place, mult de tot imi place sa-mi ostoiesc dorul sufletului, pentru frumos, prin muzica.

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Jacky Meirovici

Vara este pentru mine un sezon destul de ocupat, deoarece sunt ghid turistic. Dar cand am timp, ascult muzica. Ceeace ar fi interesant pntru cititorii dvs sa spun despre muzica ascultata ar fi, ca am primit de la melomani din Franta si Portugalia inregistrari rare cu Constantin Silvestri si George Enescu. Poate de cel mai mare interes ar fi doua inregistrari ale Oedipului:inregistrarea versiunii lui Silvestri, din seara premierei in 1958 si cea facuta la doua saptamani dupa moartea lui Enescu la Paris sub bagheta lui Charles Bruck cu Xavier Depraz in rolul titular.

In rest superbe interpretari enesciene in pagini de Bach, Mozart, Beethoven, Schumann, Ceaikovski, Bartok, Rogalski, Dragoi, Jora si Lipatti. Deci vara aceasta..ramanem…acasa!!

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Loredana Baltazar

Sunt un tip de om deschis experientelor variate, iar ca ascultator de muzica am descoperit recent cateva repere din vechile cantece haiducesti care emana un optimism si o forta aparte, nemaivorbind de virilitate. Este si acesta un tip antrenant de muzica, astazi in mare parte uitat, care, insa, poate avea efectul unei infuzii energetice de o vitalitate surprinzatoare, tonificand spiritul concomitent cu trupul. Personal, simt un sprijin real in folclorul autentic, care conserva energiile benefice, incarcand pozitiv spiritul uman in aceeasi masura ca si contactul fizic, palpabil, cu natura vie care ne inconjoara.

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Lucian Manailescu

În ceea ce priveşte muzica clasică lucrurile sunt foarte complicate, în măsura în care, dincolo de cercul iniţiaţilor, nu se prea „aude” nimic: la şcoală, pe scenele din provincie, la „tembeliziuni”. Cred că aici lucrurile trebuiesc luate de foarte „jos”, pe un program – gândesc eu – ce ar trebui să mixeze valsul vienez cu fragmente din „Eroica” şi, de ce nu, cu muzica preclasică, unde un flaut, de exemplu, poate fermeca mai mult decât o orhestră. Poate n-ar fi rău să se promoveze o astfel de educaţie în mediile ce pot favoriza percepţia muzicii: ca un preludiu la un spectacol de teatru, la festivalurile şi concursurile de literatură sau, aşa cum am văzut la Braşov, într-o superbă duminică, în stradă, acolo unde elevii de la liceul de artă au stârnit un miracol. (vezi fotografia). În ceea ce priveşte muzica „mai uşoară” n-aş spune că stăm foarte rău: avem o muzică folck excepţională (Marcela Safciuc, regretata Tatiana Stepa, Nicu Alifantis – mai ales Nicu Alifantis – , Raul Cârstea ş.a.m.d.) şi câteva „voci”.  Doar că toate astea sunt învălmăşite, sufocate de manele şi de formaţii ce nu reuşesc să treacă de străvechiul Pheonix, sau de cântăreţi ce se nasc duminică şi mor luni. Ce e de făcut? Fără educaţie nimic… În armată visam să văd un general şi n-am văzut (pe vremea aia nu prea cădeau stele din cer pe umerii agricultorilor de ocazie ai patriei  iar politica era verişoara dictaturii!), iar acum visez să văd un director al unei Direcţii Judeţene (fie ea şi oarecare – despre direcţie e vorba) de cultură, la un eveniment artistic. Cred că singura soluţie (în afară de încă o revoluţie) ar fi ca societatea civilă să lase Statul să doarmă, după ce se intonează Imnul Naţional, să mutăm răsăritul soarelui de la Bucureşti în provincie şi să visăm. Pentru că, în artă, inclusiv în muzică, restul e, a fost şi va fi tăcere…

 

Maria Sabina Draga Alexandru

Dansuri de inspiraţie populară scrise de George Draga

George Draga – Dansuri din Ţinutul Aradului

 

George Draga – Dansuri Romanesti din Zona Brasovului

George Draga – Dansuri din Banat

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Marian Grigore Dobreanu

Menuet de Boccherini

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Marilena Vaida

Joe Dassin

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Marius Cătălin Codrici

Gustav Mahler – Simfonia numarul 1 „Titan”; Antonio Vivaldi – Concert pentru mandolină; Handel – Muzica apelor; Muzica contemporana: Armin van Buren – Year mix 2011; Klaus Shultze – Trance Appeal; Coloana sonora filme „K-pax” , „Buna, ce faci?”, „Blindness”.

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Mihaela Ţiţeica:

Manuel De Falla – El amor brujo

 

Mihai Batog-Bujeniţă

Vă mulţumesc şi pentru această ofertă minunată şi interactivă. Nu am o cultură muzicală, sunt deci acel consumator de muzică obişnuit, cel care, cu orgoliu, dar şi îngrijorare pot spune că este, în sensul cel mai larg: „publicul”. Chiar dacă vara se pregăteşte să cedeze locul eu parcă tot aş asculta acele compoziţii considerate, poate, vulgare, sau vulgarizate, însă cert, nemuritoare: Coruri sau Marşuri din opere, Nocturele, Sonata lunii, Mica serenadă. şi, de ce nu, preclasicii pe care cred că îi nedreptăţim şi, s-ar părea că, nu prea-i mai cunoaştem. Este desigur o părere absolut personală.

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Oana Ştefan

Pink Martini http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ldxn6aq2GCc

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Octavian Sergentu

Recomandarile mele ar fi Loreena McKennit – albumul „A Mediterranean Odyssey” (folk) sau Nightwish- albumul ” Angels Fall First”, dar ascultam muzica si din celelalte genuri muzicale, inclusiv romanesti care se mentin in top sau sunt valabile ca piese de exceptie, Cele mai bune, evident.

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Radu Aldulescu

Eu, cand vreau sa imi stimulez creativitatea, am observat ca ma ajuta Mozart (am niste CD-uri intitulate „The Essential Mozart” (mi-a placut foarte tare si filmul Amadeus), cand vreau sa devin mai „agresiv” – in sensul bun, ca sa zic asa, al cuvantului – ascult Beethoven, favorita fiind totusi Simfonia a IX-a, cand vreau sa ma simt cu un pas mai aproape de divinitate ascult „Peer Gynt”, a lui Grieg, iar cand am chef sa simt poezia mai bine, ascult Nicu Alifantis (fie „25”, fie mai noul „Cantece de Semineu”). Sigur, astea ar fi favoritele, care cred ca ar placea oricarui ascultator, mai mult sau mai putin cunoscator.

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Susan White

I have been listening to the musical Les Miserables (1980) by Claude-Michel Schonberg. Mainly (or initially) because I am playing violin in a performance with a summer theater group here in California !!! :0 I had forgotten what a great story it is.  There is redemption – grace versus the Law (of interest from a Christian point of view) –AND of course, there are several stories of undying love. There is heroism (it takes place at the beginning/development of the French Revolution. The music is very emotional – and „fun”.  Not serious (although it is emotional). But that is perfect for summer listening.

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Ştefan Doru Dăncuş

Chopin şi Liszt, mai ales lied-urile lui Liszt.

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Valentina Becart

Eu îndrăgesc muzica de pian, ascult Gheorghe Iovu, Gheorghe Zamfir,
M. Ravel, Chopin, Beethoven

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Vasile Menzel

În vacanţă vă recomand să ascultaţi „ANOTIMPURILE” de Vivaldi

IAH Conference and Organ Music Festival in Timisoara

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Reportage

The summer of 2011 has brought a large variety of cultural manifestations throughout Romania and it was almost like there was a contest between the cities regarding this particular aspect. Having known the city of Timisoara from last year’s Timorgelfest, of which I have written extensively, I was honored and happy to attend this year’s perfect blending between the new edition of Timorgelfest (the 11th edition) and the 26th Biennial Conference of the IAH (International Fellowship for Research in Hymnology – or, by its German title, Internationale Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Hymnologie. The organ festival and the works of the Conference offered to the participants a wonderful alternation between music and paper presentations on the topic of church music  as it is today and as it will be likely to evolve. The very topic of the conference was The Future of the Hymnbook.

A few words on the Festival organizers. This year, the Festival Timorgelfest, as well as the IAH Conference, have been organized with the help of the Ministry of Culture and National Patrimony, Local Council of Timisoara, the Banatul Philharmonic, West University of Timisoara and of Internationale Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Hymnologie. The directors of the Festival are Prof. Dr. Felician Roşca and Prof. Dr. Walter Kindl – the Dean of the Faculty of Music in Timisoara.  Generally, the process of organizing a Festival is a most difficult task and therefore I would like to state that few of the Festivals that I have attended had a similar organization as this one, especially in: punctuality, synchronization, professionalism and quality. The aforementioned qualities are the main attributes that characterize the Timorgelfest-IAH cultural manifestation. As I have already mentioned, I found it extremely useful and important that the organ festival blended with the IAH works, as many organ specialists from all over the world were present. Also, as the organ is the “church instrument” in many denominations, it was a good occasion to listen to different points of view and different approaches on what we can name “the queen of all musical instruments” – the organ.

There were people present from Germany, Austria, England, the United States, Canada, Switzerland, Slovakia, Romania, and many other countries. Many of the guests had an active role in their churches – that of church musician, organist, composer of religious music, or of priest, reverend, monk. And I think that one of the best expressions of ecumenism (no matter how controversial the word may appear to some people) would be such a cultural encounter between the people of different churches, having one very important thing in common: the belief that music is the perfect instrument for the communication with God and for lifting the believers’ hearts to God. This idea, of course, has many facets. Each church denomination has a hymn book; these are, most of the times, actual keepers of the important traditions of the church, and at the same time – the instrument for educating people’s hearts and sensibilities, making them open to culture, to music, in particular; often we can observe that the members of the churches which practice congregational singing have a good musical ear, an improved memory, a good taste for classical music and the constant presence of joy in their hearts, as the singing activates a taste for happiness, as one member of the IAH Conference noticed, not to mention the healing powers of music that have been studied and implemented in the shape of music therapy for hundreds of years already.

In the opening ceremony of the Timorgelfest 2011 festival and the Congress of the European Hymnology Society, which took place on July 24, there were invited to speak several important guests and members of the festival organizers: the Rector of West University of Timisoara – Prof. Dr. Ioan Talpos, the President of the European Hymnology Society – Prof. Dr. Franz Karl Prassl, the Timis County Council – Constantin Ostaficiuc, the Mayor of Timisoara – Gheorghe Ciuhandru and the Representatives of different church denominations in Timisoara: His Grace Dr. Nicolae Corneanu – the Orthodox Archbishop, the Roman-Catholic Bishop Msgr. Dr.h.c. Martin Roos, and Pastor Mihai Maur. The opening ceremony continued with an Organ Concert and the Roman Catholic Cathedral in Unirii Square in Timisoara, the program of which consisted in Franz Liszt’s Works, interpreted by several organ students from Timisoara and from Budapest. I had the joy of meeting several of these students during my last visit in Timisoara – those studying with Prof. Dr. Felician Rosca: a wonderful group of young organ students, devoted, studious and with an immense love of music, intensively nourished by their professor (and it is the time for me to mention a most extraordinary event which took place during one of Felician Rosca’s concert tours in Italy, when he offered the “bis” part to one of his students, Minodora Luca, in a very important concert, thus giving her the opportunity to play in front of a large audience).

The Conference lectures and activities have been structured during 5 days, plus 2 extra-days dedicated to the visiting of historical places in Romania. I shall try to make a brief presentation of each day of the Conference, since everyday there was a blending between music and science and the lectures were particularly important for the understanding of the role of music in the quotidian life of a believer. In Romania, there are 18 recognized denominations, among which the Orthodox Church is dominant. However, in recent years, the idea of ecumenism and tolerance has gained a larger portion of people’s minds, and this is why the topic of this Conference deserves an increased attention. I shall present the main ideas of the lectures that were given in English, in order to make these important ideas know to the readers in Romania and also to a larger audience abroad.

The first day of the Conference, July 25, 2011, started by a lecture given by Erich Renhart from Graz, Austria: The New Hymnal – an E-Book? Thoughts on book history and media criticism. With the difficult topic of the e-book as a possible substitute for the “real book”, Erich Renhart invokes the possibility that one day the church hymnals shall be replaced by e-books readable on a gadget, on an app we have on the iphone, or on the big screens that we see very often in churches nowadays, even in the most conservative countries. The e-book allows us, for example, to collate hymns and prayers specifically for use at individual events. Gone are the days of leafing through the book. (…) Just imagine an e-book which is connected to a large database. This database stores thousands of church hymns from various centuries in a variety of languages. (…) It enables the fast and compact transfer of information and data – on just one USB stick for a number of books. Could it be that the e-book has only advantages? Erich Renhart’s answer is negative, and thus he provides his critical assessment. An electronic book is also dependent on a number of outside conditions, such a electricity supply and adequate lighting. (…) The use of the e-book can also lead to a creeping process of incapacitation. Everything is predetermined. I cannot even lead through a book and find the relevant page. The element of participatio actuosa is slowly diminishing. (…) From this point of view, the e-book, since it provides a virtual collection, and renders acute when is needed at a certain point in time, can actually be seen as historic-cultural regression compared to the real book. I find these observations very important, and also the final remarks of Prof. Renhart deserve our deepest attention: New songs need to be created. Where are today’s poets and their new creations? Where are their new compositions? Have the poets really withdrawn from church artistic creation? (…) New images need to be created. Where are the artists who can create images of that which language cannot gasp?[1]

Prof. Dr. Felician Roşca from West University of Timisoara presented extensively the history of the neo-protestant churches in a lecture entitled Several historical reference points regarding the hymn books within the protestant churches in Romania. The historical background has been of  high interest, expressing at the same time an objective vision upon the national history. Romania has undergone tragic periods during the time between the two World Wars, through the neo-fascist activities which were hostile to the Protestant churches, but especially during the tough communist period following the Second World War. Felician Roşca invited the guests to sing together a truly Romanian melody composed by George Enescu whose lyrics were written by the poet Florin Lăiu – the hymn “Spre slava Ta uniţi (For Your Glory United). The hymnology in neo-Protestant churches is a new, fresh topic even for the people in Romania, who, despite a well affirmed ecumenism, rarely go to the churches of other denominations in order to see what the other people believe, do, and sing (and that is a very unfortunate situation).  The tradition of the common song in the neo-Protestant churches is rooted in the practices of the historical Protestant churches, but especially in the history of the Protestantism from America. (…) In Romania the significant contemporary representatives of the Reformation within the majority Romanian population are the neo-Protestant churches. While presenting the common song practices and the concepts of theology and musical education, Felician Roşca mentions the name of one of the most important musicologists and analysts of the Romanian neo-Protestant song – Mircea Valeriu Diaconescu.  Throughout the years, this musicologist has identified the connections between the neo-Protestant hymnology and the reference sources of the American, Protestant and even Orthodox hymnology. A highly important topic is the presence of the young people and children is related to the presence of the young people and children in the neo-Protestant church. I shall detail this topic later on, but for now it is proper to meditate upon the fact that children and young people are no longer present in churches and the lack of interest for religion is an alarming phenomenon that has been subject to analysis throughout the Conference. The exception would be the neo-Protestant church. The attention paid to the young people in the church for the promotion of the common song is a practice used from the youngest ages. Within the confessional kindergartens, in the religious schools of every church there is a permanent concern regarding the education of the children and young people. Music is not used as a means of “attracting” them, but as an efficient means of religious education. (…) A powerful instrument which is very useful to the Christian educator is undoubtedly the hymn, the song. The historical experience of Christianity is a self-evident proof of the engraving power which the song has on conscience. Thus, the transmission of the most constant values of the world, God and the Scripture is a primary objective for the authors of the hymns.  Prof. Dr. Felician Roşca’s conclusion is that through its permissive and interconfessional character, the Romanian hymnology returns after many years of distress to the cradle of the great European values. [2]

The musical part for the first day of the Conference / Festival consisted in the participation to (of) the Orthodox Vesper service at the Orthodox cathedral in Timisoara. It was the first contact with the orthodox music for several of the conference guests. The beauty of the Orthodox Cathedral is perhaps impossible to express through words.  It was built between 1937 and 1940 and  it is dedicated to the Three Holy Hierarchs, Saints Basil the Great, Gregory the Theologian, and John Chrysostom. It has 11 towers, of which the central, and the highest, has a height of 96 meters.

It is home to many valuable religious objects such as old icons and early writings in Romanian, such as the 1648 Noul Testament de la Bălgrad („The New Testament of Bălgrad”) and the 1643 Cazania lui Varlaam  („The Homiliary of Metropolitan Varlaam”). The building’s style is quite unusual among Romanian Orthodox buildings, although it is partly based on local religious tradition and partly on Byzantine architecture. The church’s interior and exterior paintings were created by the painter Atanasie Demian. The difficult period that followed the structure’s completion (see Romania during World War II) prevented the paintings from being finished on time, so this work went on for many years after World War II.


The second day of the Conference / Festival consisted in two lectures given in the morning and a few shorter ones in the afternoon, together with several very important music events. The lecture given by David Scott Hamnes from Trondheim, Norway, entitled A common heritage? Aspects of unified hymnody and the hymn tune in Scandinavia provided an insight into the hymnals in the Scandinavian region, together with some very interesting musical examples and a stress on the idea that the living praxis is what matters when it comes to church music. Congregational singing is the most important worshipping activity of the Christian community next to Eucharist. (…) Singing ritual songs is a natural part of the human persona, involving the whole person and affecting human memory – ideas similar to those that the Romanian composer Octavian Nemescu often states when it comes to music seen as a ritual. The corporate singing of hymns is undoubtedly of great value to humankind, and is often especially apparent at times of emotional distress. Singing engages at many different levels and awakens memories of many kinds. (…) Christ himself took part in the singing of hymns and the Psalter was integral to the worship of the early Church. (…) All societies have expressed forms of common worship acts; singing is possibly the most coherent and effective in which many forms of religious corporate unity may be experienced and expressed.[3] Following David Hamnes’ considerations, perhaps we should meditate more on the importance of hymns incorporated in the education of our children, regardless of the denomination we belong to.

David Hamnes’ lecture was followed by the intervention of Priest Prof. Dr. Vasile Grăjdian in a lecture entitled Hymnals of the Romanian Orthodox Church. I was impressed by Father Grajdian’s mentioning several times the important role played by Paul Constantinescu in the creative section of orthodox church music: he considers Paul Constantinescu one of the ambassadors of the Orthodox music in Romania and abroad, and his creations remain a model and a key point in the Romanian musical culture. Father Grajdian also mentioned other important elements of the Orthodox culture. Some fundamental aspects of the liturgical chant of the Romanian Orthodox Church have been preserved from the Byzantine tradition up until present days: its vocal character (the rejection of the use of musical instruments) – and the predominantly monadic and modal character (the ochtoechos, the 8 ecclesiastical modes). Father Grăjdian mentioned that all the chant books and collections necessary for the Orthodox liturgy have been translated into Romanian and printed since the 16th Century; the entire process was completed in the 18th Century. The oldest manuscript of musical nature discovered in Romania is a Gospel lectionary in Greek from the 11th Century containing liturgical readings from the Holy Gospel with ekphonetic notation, now in Iassy. Extremely useful and important was also the extensive presentation of liturgical choir compositions of the last century and a half. The beginning is certainly marked by Ioan Cartu (1820-1875) who was commissioned in 1865 by the ruler Alexandru Ioan Cuza to introduce harmonic choir singing in the parishes of the United Principalities (Moldavia and Wallachia), This continued with representative of Western influences such as Alexandru Flechtenmacher, Eduard Wachmann, George Stephănescu, and with representatives of Russian influences, but also of a Western nature, such as Isidor Vorobchievici, Gavriil Musicescu, Gheorghe Mandicevski.[4] Father Grăjdian ended his presentation by inviting the conference guests to sing together the famous Orthodox hymn Iubi-te-voi Doamne (God, I will love thee), splitting the “volunteers” into two teams: some singing the drone note, some the melody, and the result was an impeccable interpretation of this hymn (as many other hymns shall be sung) and a first contact with the practice of Orthodox music.

The day continued with a few shorter presentations, among which Elena Maria Sorban – Transylvanian medieval plainchant poetry (a presentation during which the lecturer taught the audience how to read Gregorian transcriptions, a most useful exercise), the historian Adrian Neagu spoke about The Romanian religious hymn at the beginning of the 20th Century – between sacred and popular and Martti Laitinen presented the life and activity of Ilmari Krohn: The “Psalter” composed by Ilmari Krohn.

In the evening, the guests were invited to attend the Lutheran service at the Evangelical-Lutheran  church in Timisoara, a very beautiful building that adds to the splendors of this city. For the dating of the edifice, some sources indicate 1831 (probably the year of the first project), but most sources indicate 1837 to 1839. The architectural style is classicist style. The façade’s Doric pilasters on two levels, the triangular fronton and the Ionic tower pilasters are significant. The tower’s roof, in a Neo-Baroque-style, was probably raised in 1902. The architect of this beautiful church is Anton Schmidt. The building of evangelical churches in Timişoara was possible only after Emperor Joseph II issued the Patent of Religious Tolerance in October 13, 1781.

The evangelical community today is composed of Germans, Hungarians, Romanians and Slovaks; the religious service is celebrated in all four languages. The Lutheran Community is currently small in Timişoara: about 400 people. The first Protestants arrived in the Banat were Germans (especially from Baden-Württemberg), at the end of the eighteenth century and early eighteenth century. Their number was not large, for the golden era of colonization in the Banat plain had passed, the good land being already occupied by Catholic settlers from previous waves. Later in the nineteenth century, Hungarian or Slovak evangelicals arrived in the Banat, and in urban centers such as  Timisoara. Some Romanians have also become evangelical following mixed marriages.

After the Lutheran service, led by Jorgen Kjærgaard, the guests were invited to attend a choral concert of Romanian Orthodox chants in the Orthodox Cathedral. The small choir consisted of priests and deacons from the Church and they sung a few very familiar Orthodox songs from the Divine Liturgy repertoire, among which Pre Tine Te Lăudăm (We praise you) and Iubi-Te-voi Doamne (God, I will love thee) – that the guests already knew from Father Grajdian’s lecture in the morning.

The third day of the Conference, on July 27, was a bit shorter than the previous two due to an excursion that took place in the afternoon. The 3 presentations in the morning dealt with both theoretical and practical aspects of the hymn books. Alan Luff, from Cardiff, England, from his perspective and experience of Anglican priesthood, lectured about Renewing the Song – The Editors’ Contribution. He pointed out that there are several themes dealt with in the hymns, that are dealt with in the hymns, and of a high importance is that of Christian Unity. There are a number of hymns that deal with this, but sometimes, in the English repertoire at least, they may in fact have been written in the first place with the unity of the Anglican Church in mind. One such  is “The church’s one foundation” written long before the ecumenical movement. (…) Issues of war and peace, of international disharmony, of world trade and world hunger do come up more often these days in our hymns, though the language needed adequately to deal with the subjects may often be more rough and less poetic than our editors would like to see. Alan Luff concluded that in the end, the matter is out of the hands of the editors. It is the wise and imaginative selection of the hymns that is at the heart of making a hymn book a means of revitalizing worship[5].

Rastislav Adamko a Catholic priest from Slovakia, lectured on The reception of new singings in the Catholic Church in Slovakia. The historical background of Slovakia was of a high interest, and was presented in the same manner that Father Grăjdian had previously done. The reception of the new musical repertoire is significantly influenced by the level of musical literacy of Slovak society. This is demonstrated in musical taste of contemporary Slovaks, especially of clergy at all hierarchical levels. (…) In the socialist period, the majority was not musically educated because on elementary level the musical education was neglected. There was lack of qualified teachers, lack of musical instruments or singing ensembles, so at music education lessons teachers taught what they did not manage to do at mathematics or Slovak. Simply, the music education was underestimated and belittled. (…) Concert halls are completely or half empty. The status lasts up to now.  However, Rastislav Adamko draws a positive conclusion to his presentation of the present situation in Slovakia: just by patient explanation, positive attitude and with the support of the highest church hierarchy authorities it is possible gradually to get rid of accumulated prejudices and incorrect dogmas or habits[6].

An interactive, and at the same time profound and well articulated presentation, was given by Rev. Elisabeth Posthumus Meyjes from Epe, Netherlands. A short autobiography is given in the introductory section of the lecture. I have always been singing. As a baby, my mother tells me, with my toes curled in my cradle I would compete with the larch. As a little girl in church, I sang in the Sunday school and a solo every year at Christmas. As a youngster in a French choir in the Eglise Wallone in Amsterdam and in the Christian Student Body I went to camp with. As an adolescent in a hospital where I was trained to be a nurse I sang to counter all the tragedy and pain I was confronted with. And in Taizé I found a partner for life, singing. By inviting the guests to sing, Elisabeth Posthumus Meyjes leads two different exercises on the simple words of the hymn Lauda Relauda, performing it in rounds. Singing together creates a oneness. The number of singing people in the room becomes a single plural as soon as we tune in together. Singing with several individuals makes one body. This unity is larger than the sum of the individual voices. Theologically speaking the act of singing together where the participants have the experience of being uplifted is a moment of revelation of God. Why singing in rounds? This resulted in a beautiful polyphony. Elisabeth Posthumus Meyjes explains: The form of a round apparently as old as the fourteenth century, but perhaps older,  in this example of praise to God, shows a new aspect. When we sing in multiple voices it is impossible (for me) to discern the different voices. The first emphasis starts to sound like a bell which is tolling[7].

The fourth day of the Conference, on the 28th of July, consisted in two lectures in the morning and a few shorter presentations in the afternoon. The day started with the lecture given by Jorgen Kjærgaard, Lutheran Pastor: Congregational Hymnal – Is there any sense in speaking of its future? Some considerations in a Scandinavian perspective. By pointing out that in both the Byzantine and Latin liturgy, song captures the very essence of the liturgical aims. Jorgen Kjærgaard explains that, since its invention, the Lutheran congregational hymn has been dependent on the mass media. (…) The Lutheran hymn is, in its essence, interpretation of the Bible, or in other words: a sung sermon! The Lutheran congregational hymn is meant to be an echo of the Gospel in the mouth and voice of the lay congregation. Also, Jorgen Kjærgaard stresses the conditions in which, in the present day, the church manifests itself. These are, in fact, the qualities and the malfunctions of the contemporary society. The cultural space in society is crowded / The diversity in the cultural content in society manifests itself in sub-cultural tendencies / The concept of cultural unity is disrupted / The impact of the mass media has expanded / Cultural objects have gained the character of merchandise / Utilitarism and Individualism / Neutrality of values or poly-valens / Mania of change and looseness in tradition – Project-/Event-culture. The conclusion arrived at by Jorgen Kjærgaard at the end of this lecture is a powerful, meaningful thought: The congregational hymnbook manifests a spiritual democracy that also implies responsibility for the theology of the church. Give it up, and the first steps will be taken towards liturgical, homiletic, confessional and theological anarchy or absolutism – or both![8]

Furthermore, Dr. Franz Metz, from Münich, lectured about The German Catholic Church hymn of the Germans in the Banat – presenting highly interesting information for the Romanian guests attending the Conference. In a historical overview, he explained the beginnings of the Catholic Church hymnody in Banat, the Danubian Swabian Hymns, the characteristics of the Church hymn in the Banat – with the important consideration that: one already knew as a child whether to sing the first or the second voice. There was an unwritten law among the people: a hymn becomes pretty when it can be sung in parts. As it was the second voice – indicated in the music as the Swabian third, the Bohemian third or the kitchen third – that really made the melody work. Of course there was a correspondingly slow tempo and the necessary feel for this music. In the Conclusion section of the lecture, Franz Metz states that: in order to stimulate this research in southern European countries, indeed, also in the Banat, it would make sense to ensure a worthy place within our European inheritance for this highly interesting cultural asset[9].

The day continued with five shorter presentations: Daleen Kruger on the e-hymnbook project of the Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa, dr. Arthur Funk – Die Gesangbücher der griechisch-katolischen Kirchengemeinden des Banats, Richard Mailander – On the creation of Hymn section for the Gebet-und Gesangbuch, Jenni Urponen – Neuere finnische kirchengesangaufnahmen and ended with a presentation I made on a Romanian contemporary work – Salve Regina by Octavian Nemescu. I played the entire work for the conference guests, who listened with great attentiveness. I was honored and impressed by the attention they gave to Romanian contemporary music.

The musical part of the day was unusual for many guests since it took place in the Adventist Church in Timisoara, where an evening service and hymn festival were  celebrated. The evening service represented a bouquet of  extremely beautiful musical events – and I can make this statement even though I come from the realm of Bucharest’s musical life where almost every day one could attend a concert of some kind. Notwithstanding in the past few years I could attend  religious services in all the Christian denominations; but I could never listen to  Pachelbel’s Canon in D together with other songs performed by children, by string quartets and vocal quartets, soloists songs and congregational songs. I don’t know how many of our readers had the chance to see a group of 7-10 children who were so small that they were barely able to stand, singing in perfect attunement songs about God. The resultant rare moment of peace makes your soul soar and, truly, tears flow from your eyes. For what can be more beautiful than a child singing? I was also impressed by the young members of the string quartets (all of them –members of the Mehedinti family, an admirable thing when all the members of a family are playing a musical instrument) and the impeccable interpretation of the vocal quartet (well-controlled voices, precision and coordination – the elements that prove the experience of attentive singing and long rehearsals – the vocal quartet has sung the hymn Great the Lord. The guests were also enchanted by the Bells formation from Arad, conducted by Mariana Toma, a music group consisting of young and some very young, members. What we need to stress is that many young people and children are actively present in the divine service by means of music. In Romania – where the interest for music education is close to zero, where music is an optional or facultative class, one hour per week or less, here are children and adolescents who sing with great pleasure, enthusiasm and love in their worship of God as well as to demonstrate the splendor of human intelligence and sensibility in its noblest fruit: music.

The evening ended with the hymn festival – which consisted of a choral concert in the first part (the choir Laudae Cristae was conducted by Lucian Oniţă (I observed the perfect discipline of this choir, the precise singing and correct calibration of the sound) and of congregational singing in the second part, with the help of the conference members and guests. The organ accompaniment was sustained by Prof. Dr. Felician Roşca, an important member of the church.

It was obvious that this is a musicians’ church. All the congregational hymns were “read” at first sight by the guests, all the arrangements consisting in 4 part melodies and in a similar manner to that of the Madrigal choir exercises, when the members of the choir mixed in with the audience. It was a spontaneous demonstration of love and professionalism towards which God, I am sure, regarded with benevolence. An extraordinary moment was represented by the first-sight reading of the Aleluia hymnby Valeriu Burciu, a complex, polyphonic work, conducted by Felician Roşca and impeccably sung by all the participants. And I said to myself, if in the year 2011 there are still people who can read  complicated polyphonic music at first sight, with sensitivity and love, then surely music and praying are synonymous.

The conference ended in the fifth day, on July 29th, with the lecture given by Angsar Franz: The idea of a unified hymnal. Theology, history, the present day, the future. The author explained the occurrence of the unified hymnal in the Catholic realm of several countries: Germany, Austria, Switzerland, detailing the Repertorio Nazionale Canti per la Liturgia. It has obviously been grasped that, in the realm of congregational singing, sensibility is called for and it cannot be replaced by directives[10]. This is an important concept that should always be borne in our minds.

The portrait of a liturgical dancer. On such occasions, it is obvious that we grow fond of some particular people we have the chance to meet. Such a person is Emma-Elze Bongers. She started to study liturgical dances around 1991, during the IAH Conference at that time; after that, in every Conference that followed, there would be a liturgical dance. Between 1993 and 1994 she studied the liturgical dances in 11 countries, as they were integrated in the historical traditions. People are reluctant at first, when they hear about liturgical dance. Some have the impression that dancing is undoubtedly connected to letting the “bad energies” free, being superficial, being in a totally “non-sacred” realm. But those who have already tried the liturgical dance say that, when you dance, you experience an intense feeling of freedom, you are like a child that can do no harm, dancing comes in a natural way.

Emma-Elze Bongers has led many dance meditations throughout the world. Here we can offer a small insight into her extraordinary and fascinating world and we are looking forward to the possibility of dedicating an entire case-study to her work.

The last two days were dedicated to the exploration of several historical places in Romania in the nearby of Timisoara I was especially happy to be able to see the Historical site of Sarmizegetusa, a Romanian paradigm for the victory of history over time. Perhaps it is not a coincidence that people who cherish culture and religion so much have been brought here, to the very heart of Romania, and all of them agreed that rarely have they seen a more beautiful place. It was that moment when I was really proud to be a part of this country: no matter that others would say, it is a place worth living in. So much space, contradiction and beauty in one land, said a guest gazing through the bus window, as he had never in his life seen a flock of sheep. I would agree with that.

Veronica Anghelescu


[1]Quotations in italic type are taken from Erich Renhart: The New Hymnal – an E-Book? Thoughts on book history and media criticism, lecture given during the 26th Biennial IAH Conference, Timisoara, July 25, 2011

[2] Quotations in italic type are taken from Felician Roşca: Several historic reference points regarding the hymn books within the Protestant Churches in Romania, lecture given during the 26th Biennial IAH Conference, Timisoara, July 25, 2011

[3] David Scott Hamnes: A common heritage? Aspects of unified hymnody and the hymn tune in Scandinavia

[4] Vasile Grăjdian: Hymnals of the Romanian Orthodox Church

[5] Alan Luff: Renewing the Song – The Editors’ Contribution

[6] Rastislav Adamko: The reception of new singings in the Catholic Church in Slovakia

[7] Elisabeth Posthumus Meyjes: Lauda relauda Bouquet of sound from Deventer

[8] Jorgen Kjærgaard: Congregational hymnal – is there any sense in speaking of its future? Some considerations in a Scandinavian Perspective.

[9] Franz Metz: The German Catholic Church hymn of the Germans in the Banat

[10] Angsar Franz: The idea of a unified hymnal. Theology, history, the present day, the future

Un document valoros, descoperit din întâmplare

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Ceva mai devreme, studiam arhiva unui prieten compozitor trecut la cele veşnice, şi am găsit o valoroasă partitură de Paul Constantinescu, o partitură pe care de foarte multă vreme mi-aş fi dorit să o pot studia. Surpriza a fost cu atât mai mare cu cât, pe prima pagină, am putut descoperi un autograf al compozitorului. Astfel de descoperiri sunt importante şi trebuie făcute cunoscute.

V.A.

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Jazz-ul ca simbioză muzicală (III)

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Revoluţia Bebop: jazzul ca artā muzicalā nu ca formā de divertisment

Ajunşi la a treia întâlnire prin intermediul revistei No14PlusMinus, demersul pentru evidenţierea potenţialului simbiotic, unic, al genului muzicii de jazz, continuă cu un moment de cotitură din istoria genului. Deceniul al cincilea al « secolului vitezei » (XX) aduce o forţă creatoare cu incărcătură estetică în rândul muzicienilor afro-americani. Detaşarea de cadrul neprofesionist şi mai puţin nobil al divertismentului muzical a fost o preocupare constantă a muzicienilor de jazz «de geniu » . După cum am arătat în primele două episoade, aproape toţi muzicienii afro-americani de “rang I” au studiat muzica şi teoria europeană (compoziţie, orchestraţie,etc) înainte sau în paralel cu studiul jazzului. Această pregătire le-a conferit muzicienilor negri un discernământ estetic-muzical superior, aceştia realizând faptul că muzica fară mesaj estetic este doar pentru consum facil. Adresabilitatea muzicii trebuie direcţionată către intelect, acesta antrenând somaticul cu toate componentele şi funcţiile simţurilor.

Revenind la  “Revoluţia” jazzului, din deceniul al 5-lea al secolului XX începe jazzul modern, adică ceea ce ar trebui să se promoveze ca adevărata muzică emblematică a genului.

Din păcate, promovarea agresivă a stilurilor premergătoare bop-ului a creat la nivelul percepţiei globale o asociere a jazzului cu acea muzică incipientă de divertisment facil (dixieland sau swing realizat în sălile de bal; a existat o abordare intelectuală a swing-ului realizat în cadrul programului “Jazz at Philarmonic”).

Cei care au realizat “revoluţia” au fost membri ai “echipei de la “Minton’s Playhouse”: Charlie Parker(sax.alto), Thelonius Monk(pian), Dizzy Gillespie(trompetă), Charlie Christian (chitară), Kenny Clarke(baterie). “Minton’s Playhouse” era un club de jazz deţinut de Henry Minton, primul delegat din partea muzicienilor negri să-i repezinte în American Federation of Musicians, înfiinţată în 1896. Federaţia cuprinde SUA şiCanada iar legile ei apără şi astăzi, prin norme stricte, drepturile muzicienilor autohtoni (unii spun că ar fi bine să preluăm şi noi acest sistem…).

S-au scris multe despre această periodă a jazzului, începând cu programele analitice de la “Berklee College of Music” care se adresează viitorilor profesionişti, continuând cu demersurile muzicologice ale specialiştilor americani sau francezi precum : Garry Giddings, Lucien Malson, Andre Hodeir sau amplul proiect de televiziune realizat de televiziunea CBS, în care îşi dă concursul trompetistul Winton Marsalis.

Aşa cum am spus, totul este legat de ceea ce a realizat „echipa de la Minton’s Playhouse”.  „Geniul” din echipă era indiscutabil saxofonistul Charlie Parker, denumit şi “Yardbird” sau „Bird”. Născut în 1920 în zodia Leului, Parker a început studiul saxofonului la vârsta de 11 ani, fără să arate calităţi ieşite din comun. A cântat în ansamblul de la “Lincoln High School” unde era elev fără rezultate notabile. Într-un interviu pe care i l-a luat Paul Desmond, Parker spunea că a avut o perioadă în adolescenţă când a studiat 15 ore pe zi timp de 3-4 ani…

Parker a activat în formaţiile lui Count Basie şi Bennie Moten şi se pare că a fost influenţat de aceste colaborări înainte de a-şi crea stilul propriu. Prima înregistrare profesionistă a sa a realizat-o cu trupa pianistului Jay McShann (Jay McShann’s territory band”) cu care a avut un turneu de concerte în cluburile de noapte din Chicago şi New York. În această perioadă el are un accident de automobil şi după ce foloseşte morfina, devine dependent de un alt drog, heroina, de care nu mai reuşeşte să scape, aceasta provocându-i şi moartea timpurile.

În 1939 Parker se mută la New York şi lucrează pentru 9 dolari pe săptămână la “Jimmie’s Chicken Snack”, local unde cânta pianistul Art Tatum de la care s-a inspirat în cadrul dezvoltării pe principiul arpegierii în tempo-uri mari.

În 1942 intră în ansamblul lui Earl Hines unde îl cunoaşte pe Dizzy Gillespie cu care are o colaborare fructuoasă mai târziu.

Un moment deosebit în activitatea lui Parker a fost proiectul de jazz cu ansamblu de corzi. Se pare că Parker a ţinut foarte mult să realizeze fuziunea între orchestra de corzi şi grupul de jazz, muzica lui Stravinski fiind un exemplu care l-a inspirat.  Producătorul evreu Norman Granz l-a ajutat pe Parker să-şi realizeze visul de a înregistra cu o orchestră de corzi. Vă reamintesc că Norman Granz este promotorul proiectului “Jazz at Philarmonic” prin care jazzul a fost promovat ca muzică de ascultat în sala de concert.

Astfel, Charlie Parker înregistreză mai multe albume cu orchestră de corzi:“Bird With Strings”, “Just Friends”, “Everything Happens to Me”, “April in Paris”, “Summertime”, “I did’t no what time it was”, “If I should lose you”.  Din câte se pare, aceste înregistrări erau favoritele lui Parker, prefigurând momentul naşterii noului stil de fuziune classical-jazz, “Third Stream” (1952).

Bop-ul se caracterizează prin afirmarea pregnantă a rădăcinilor afro în cadrul noului stil muzical.  Din acest motiv, exagerarea acestei laturi a dus la crearea unei muzici puţin agresive, aceasta datorându-se şi frustrărilor trăite de populaţia afro-americană până la dobandirea unor drepturi sociale. Stilul Bop înseamnă exprimare liberă, iar prin detaşarea de muzica de “entertainment” muzicienii au putut să-şi transmită mesajul prin muzică. Muzicianul nu se mai mulţumeşte cu rolul limitat de “entertainer” el având pretenţia ca publicul să-i asculte mesajul. De altfel, aceasta este diferenţa estetică principală între jazzul ca muzică ambientală şi cel realizat pe principii culte : primul este servil în timp ce al doilea obligă la ascultare şi la reflecţie…

Naşterea oficială a stilului Bop a avut loc odată cu înregistrarea piesei „Koko”, în 1945 la New York, de către Charlie Parker(alto sax.), Dizzy Gillespie, care a interpretat atât la trompetă cât şi la pian , Curley Russell(contrabas) şi Max Roach la baterie. Alte înregistrări din această sesiune au fost versiuni ale pieselor “Billie’s Bounce, “Warming up a Riff”, “Now the time” sau “Mandering”. Albumul ce conţinea aceste înregistrări s-a numit „The Charlie Parker Story”.

Un alt moment important din această perioadă este proiectul fussion jazz -latin music la care Charlie Parker a fost deschis în comparaţie cu alţi muzicieni care nu acceptau influenţa latino în muzica realizată la New York. Prin implicarea aceluiaşi mare „vizionar”, producătorul Norman Granz, Parker a realizat albumul “The Latin Bird” la care a colaborat şi orchestra  percuţionistului cubanez, Machito Grilo.  Este un moment foarte important, deoarece această inserţie de “latino” în Bop a însemnat aducerea unei prospeţimi ce a luminat puţin atmosfera agresivă rezultată din întoarcerea la elementele afro într-o formă mai brută ale Bopului(melodia este subordonată ritmului) şi, în special, ale Hard-Bop-ului. Muzica afro-cubană a realizat o fuziune între elementele afro şi cele latino, ritmurile sălbatice africane fiind rafinate şi diversificate prin această simbioză realizată de populaţia afro din Cuba şi din zonele alăturate.

Cel care s-a implicat foarte serios pentru realizarea simbiozei între jazz-bop şi latino a fost Dizzy Gillespie, el fiind iniţiatorul noului concept denumit Cubop.

Încă de la sfârşitul anilor 1930 Gillespie începe acest proiect în orchestra lui Bob Calloway, acolo unde se întâlneşte cu trompetistul-saxofonist cubanez, Mario Bauza. Gillespie a dorit introducerea unui percuţionist afro-cuban în ansamblu iar Bauza i l-a recomandat pe “conguero” Chano Pozo. Tot Gillespie a avut ideea de a-l invita pe Charlie Parker să participe la realizarea lucrării “Afro Cuban Jazz Suite” de Chico O’Farrill. Gillespie împreună cu percuţionistul Chano Pozo compun două piese care au contribuit la crearea noului stil(Cubop): “Manteca” şi “Tin-Tin Deo”.

Dizzy Gillespie, care de asemenea avea o pregătire muzicală solidă începând să studieze încă de la 4 ani la pian, a realizat cea de-a doua “revoluţie” în lumea jazzului modern. Pe de o parte a contribuit prin jam sessionurile de la „Minton’s Playhouse” la crearea noului jazz modern, Bop-ul, iar pe de altă parte a creat conceptul de fuziune jazz-latino, Cubop-ul.

Deşi cei doi promotori ai jazzului modern, Charlie Parker şi Dizzy Gillespie, au înţeles importanţa ritmurilor afrocubane în jazzul modern, există şi astăzi muzicieni care nu înţeleg sau nu vor să accepte acest lucru. O să vedem într-un nou episod cum acest aspect a împărţit în două categorii muzicienii de jazz în perioada Cool Jazz şi, cum spuneam, această dilemă continuă şi astăzi.

Ca să înţelegem mai bine în ce constă problema, personal am realizat 4 categorii de muzicieni :

1. Muzicienii  care provin din muzica europeană “clasică”

–          aceştia au un concept bazat pe accentele metrice pe timpii tari (ritm de marş) având ca celulă ritmică de bază grupul de 2 optimi egale; această categorie are o problemă de înţelegere atât a mecanismului ritmic “swingat” cât şi cel afro-cuban;

2. Muzicienii de jazz care exagerează accentele metrice de pe timpii impari; aceştia au la bază conceptul “Dixie” sau săltăreţ.

3. Muzicienii de jazz care preferă o manieră „agresivă” a swingului, melodia fiind subordonată ritmului care decurge exclusiv din grupul de 4 pătrimi realizate de contrabas cu accentele metrice pe timpii impari.

4. Muzicienii de jazz care dezvoltă o manieră elegantă a swing-ului, motorul ritmic de patru pătrimi realizat de către contrabas fiind doar sugerat, această manieră(plus sincoparea constantă) fiind şi motorul care stă la baza ritmurilor afro-cubane

Încadrarea în categorii estetice a celor 4 tipologii ar fi următoarea:

1.Ignorantul 2. Desuetul 3. Agresivul 4. Elegantul

Cine urmăreşte cu atenţie fenomenul şi dispune de unele cunoştinţe care să-i confere discernământ, o să constate că muzicianul din ultima categorie poate să adopte celelalte maniere interpretative în timp ce celelalte categorii nu vor putea realiza parametri interpretativi ai muzicianului din categoria a patra.

Bop-ul şi, în special, Cubop-ul au realizat acest salt estetic prin adoptarea unui concept simbiotic care combină într-un mod original ternarul african cu binarul european, rezultatul fiind o muzică vie ce îndeamnă la mişcare dar nu este dansantă. Această mişcare nu este pe verticală precum cea realizată de dansul săltăreţ, pe verticală, provenit din dansurile europene populare(vezi sârba românească sau dansurile ruseşti), ci este o mişcare circulară, provenită din dansurile sud-americane şi din cele africane. Aceste aspecte estetico- interpretative sunt foarte subtile, dar de o importanţă covârşitoare !

Este foarte important de înţeles faptul că revenirea la elementele afro ce înglobează două aspecte : a. filonul blues, b. filonul afro-cuban, constituie esenţa diferenţei între ceea ce era jazzul până la Bop şi ceea ce a fost după. Stilurile Ragtime, Dixieland şi începutul stilului Swing s-au îndepărtat de filonul afro, luând forme hibride, lipsite de consistenţă din punct de vedere estetic. Blues-ul(muzica populaţiei afro) este asemenea Doinei româneşti sau a Raga-urilor hinduse, o muzică „spirituală”, introvertită, reflexivă. Transformarea unei astfel de muzici în divertisment a însemnat denaturarea mesajului spiritual inclus în ea (vezi denaturarea muzicii Soul prin îndepărtarea către “body” a muzicii disco, house,etc.) Mai mult, izolarea filonului “afro” şi excluderea sa din demersul stilurilor de jazz incipiente a dus la crearea unei muzici lipsite de esenţă estetic-spirituală, transformată într-o muzică consumistă realizată adesea în localuri cu proastă reputaţie…

“Revoluţia” Bop a însemnat revenirea la normalitate prin respectul faţă de actul artistic şi faţă de mesajul pe care artistul-muzician îl are de transmis. O asemenea atitudine nu o poate insufla un local unde publicul se îndeletniceşte cu altceva în timp ce artistul creează. Programul “Jazz at Philarmonic”, realizat de către producătorul Norman Granz, a venit în sprijinul acestei idei, schimbându-se astfel percepţia greşită a jazzului. Ceea ce este sigur, niciun muzician serios de jazz  din perioada Swing-Big Band nu era satisfăcut de propria creaţie la modă, acea muzică de dans realizată la comanda celor care aveau afaceri cu sălile de bal sau cu industria discografică.

Există în muzica cultă lucrări inspirate din dansurile populare sau cele “de curte”, dar acest fapt nu determină melomanul din sala de concert să se ridice şi să danseze… La fel se întâmplă şi în muzica cultă de jazz. Elementele afro-cubane sau latino intruduse de Dizzy Gillespie în mişcarea Cubop nu trebuie privite ca un semn de „comercializare” a Bop-lui. Ascultând “Night in Tunisia”- care, în ciuda titlului, aduce elemente afro-cubane-, melomanul de jazz rămâne în aceeaşi stare în care se cufundă melomanul muzicii lui Grieg(cu influenţe din folclorul norvegian) sau cel al Rapsodiilor lui Enescu.

Lipsa culturii şi a discernământului artistic (care se formează prin cunoaşterea istoriei domeniului studiat şi a cunoaşterii holistice…) dă naştere la forme aberante şi denaturate de muzică…

Un muzician indian care este invitat anul aceasta (2011) în cadrul festivalului “Enescu” la secţiunea “world music” exprimă crezul muzicii iniţiatice astfel: “Muzica cultă este precum Soarele, în timp ce celelalte muzici sunt razelele…” (citat aproximativ)

Jazzul îşi capătă statutul de muzică cultă odată cu  “revoluţia” Bop,implicaţiile socio-culturale fiind pe măsură…

                                                                                  Florin Răducanu

         În spiritul celor expuse mai sus, vă propun spre audiţie şi vizionare un moment din concertul pe care l-am susţinut cu propria orchestră în cadrul festivalului “Enescu2009”. Este un aranjament pentru Big Band a parţii a III-a din sonata “Patetique” de L.w.Beethoven, în maniera Latino-Jazz: